The Whole Range of Astronomy Does Not Contain One Proof of its Own Accuracy

Due to the growing number of people I have encountered who have adopted the flat earth theory, I have been reading up on their arguments.  One source referred me to a book, in which I found the following quote pertaining to the geocentricity debate:

Dr. Woodhouse, Cambridge Professor of Astronomy, “The Earth (Not a Globe) Review,” January 1893:

When we consider what the advocates of the Earth’s stationary and central position can account for, and explain the celestial phenomena as accurately to their own thinking as we can ours, in addition to which they have the evidence of THEIR SENSES and SCRIPTURE and FACTS in their favour, which we have not ; it is not without a show of reason that they maintain the superiority of their system … However perfect our theory may appear in our own estimation, and however simply and satisfactorily the Newtonian hypotheses may seem to us to account for all the celestial phenomena, yet we are here compelled to admit the astounding truth, if our premises be disputed and the facts challenged, the whole range of Astronomy does not contain one proof of its own accuracy.

~qtd. in Terra Firma: The Earth Not a Planet Proved from Scripture, Reason, and Fact by David Wardlaw Scott, pages 42-43, available online at

The Dark Matter God Of The Gaps

One must invent unknown stuff—dark matter—with the right properties—the unknown ‘god of the gaps’—to get stars to form naturalistically. Without it, it just can’t happen!

But why invent this unknown stuff? There are various areas in astrophysics and cosmology where dark matter is invoked to solve some problem. But more fundamentally why invent a ‘god’ to overcome established laws of physics to explain star formation? Is it because if they don’t astronomers will have to admit that materialism fails and that there is more to the Universe than hydrogen, helium, some heavier elements, magnetic fields, radiation and the laws of physics?

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Locher’s Arguments Against Copernicanism

Venus geocentric orbit curve simplified (pentagram)

In 1614, when the telescope was new technology, a young man in Germany published a book filled with illustrations of the exciting new things being discovered telescopically: moons circling Jupiter, moon-like phases of Venus, spots on the Sun, the rough and cratered lunar surface. The young man was Johann Georg Locher, and his book was Mathematical Disquisitions Concerning Astronomical Controversies and Novelties. And while Locher heaped praise upon Galileo, he challenged ideas that Galileo championed – on scientific grounds.

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An Earthly and Heavenly Sun and Moon


Jonathan Edwards, “Notes on Scripture” on Joshua 10:12:

“Concerning the sun and moon’s standing still. This great event was doubtless typical; and as the sun was made to be a type of Christ, and is the most eminent type of him in all the inanimate creation, and is used as a type of Christ in Scripture, for he is the “Sun of righteousness,” and “the light of the world,” etc.; so doubtless the sun here, when it stands still to give the children of Israel light to help them against their enemies, is a type of Christ. The sun did as it were fight for the Israelites by his light; so Christ fights for his people: and the way that he does it, is chiefly by giving them light. Hereby he helps them against the powers of darkness, and overthrows the kingdom of darkness. Christ was at that time actually fighting for Israel as the captain of the host; he had a little before appeared in a visible shape with a sword drawn in his hand, and told Joshua that as the Captain of the host of the Lord he was come, Joshua 5:13-14. And there was now a double type of Christ’s fighting for his people against their spiritual enemies; Joshua was then fighting as the captain of the host of Israel, who bore the name of Christ; for Joshua is the same with Jesus, and he was an eminent type of him; and at the same time the sun stood over Joshua fighting for Israel against their enemies. While Joshua or Jesus thus fought, the sun appeared also fighting in the same battle, being a type of the true Joshua or Jesus. It was a great thing for the sun to stand still to fight for Israel, and to help them to obtain the possession of Canaan, but not so great a thing as for Christ, who is the brightness of God’s glory, and the express image of his person, the Creator and Upholder of the sun, to appear as he did, to deliver his people from their spiritual enemies, and to make way for their obtaining the heavenly Canaan. The sun, though so great and glorious a heavenly body, and though so high above the earth, yet did forego its natural course was greatly put out of the way, and deprived of that which naturally belonged to it, for the sake of Israel, laid aside its glory as the king of heaven, was as it were divested of the glory of its dominion over heaven and earth, which it has by its course through all heaven and round the earth. For it is by its course that nothing is hid from its light and heat, by which it has influence over all, and as it were rules over all, Psalm 19:6. The influence of the heavenly bodies is called in Scripture their dominion. Job 38:32, 33. But this glory as king of heaven and earth was laid aside to serve and minister unto Israel. But this was not so great a thing as for the eternal Son of God, the infinite fountain of all light, who is infinitely above all creatures, the Sun of righteousness, in comparison of whose brightness the sun is but darkness, and therefore will be turned into darkness when he appears. I say it was not so great a thing as for him to lay aside his glory as King of heaven and earth, and appear in the form of a servant to serve men, and came not to be ministered unto, but to minister, and should even give his life to destroy and confound our enemies, and obtain for us the possession of the heavenly Canaan. The sun, who by its course was wont to fill heaven and earth, now confined itself to the land of Canaan, for the sake of Israel, so Christ, who, being in heaven filled all things, Ephesians 4:10, by his incarnation confined himself to the land of Canaan, and to a tabernacle of flesh. Hence it is not any way incredible, not at all to be wondered at, that God should cause such a miracle for the sake of the Israelites, or that nature in so great an instance should be made to yield and give place to Israel’s interest, when the God of nature did as it were deprive himself of the glory that he had from the beginning of the world, yea, before the world was, even from all eternity, (John 17:5) the glory that naturally belonged to him, and as it were give up all for man, that he should become incarnate, and deliver up himself to death for the spiritual Israel.

The moon, which is a type of the church, also stood still at that time to fight against the Amorites for the church; for the church fights with Christ against the spiritual Amorites. The church militant is Christ’s army, they go forth with Christ, and under Christ, to fight the good fight of faith, and are soldiers of Jesus Christ. Christ and the church are represented going forth together in battle, Revelation 19:11, etc. Both the sun and moon stood still at that time, that there might there be a representation of the same thing in heaven that there was on the earth: there was Joshua and Israel fighting God’s enemies on earth, and there the sun and moon fighting against them in heaven, and both represented Jesus and his church fighting against their spiritual enemies.

Josh 10:12-14. Concerning the sun’s standing still. This is supposed to give occasion to the story of Phaeton the son of Sol and Clymene, who, desiring his father to let him guide the chariot of the sun for one day, set the world on fire. So we read that it was about the space of one day that the sun stood still, and this in all probability caused an extraordinary scorching and distressing heat in many parts of the world. And Mr. Bedford, in his Scripture Chronology, observes that mention is made of it in the Chinese history, that in the reign of their seventh Emperor Yao, the sun did not set for ten days together, and that the inhabitants of the earth were afraid that the earth would be burnt, for there were great fires at that time. This happened in the sixty-seventh year of that emperor’s reign, and so the time of it Mr. Bedford observes, according to their account, exactly agrees with scripture history, Scripture Chronology, p. 489. And he observes that it is natural for men in things of great antiquity to enlarge beyond the truth. And what the Chinese history mentions about great fires in many places, agrees with the story of Phaeton’s setting the world on fire. And indeed to have the day more than twenty-four hours, for besides the twelve hours that the sun stood still, the time of the sun’s course above the horizon was probably more than twelve hours, for it was probably later in the year than the vernal equinox: I say to have the sun so long above the horizon, and twelve hours of it together, so extraordinarily near the meridian, shining down with a perpendicular ray all that time, must needs cause exceeding heat in many places.”


God Heard His Prayer

051.Joshua_Commands_the_Sun_to_Stand_StillJonathan Edwards, “The Prayer-Hearing God” on Joshua’s Long Day:

“That God is eminently of this character, appears by the greatness of the things which he hath often done in answer to prayer. Thus, when Esau was coming out against his brother Jacob, with four hundred men, without doubt fully resolved to cut him off, Jacob prayed and God turned the heart of Esau, so that he met Jacob in a very friendly manner; Genesis 32. So in Egypt, at the prayer of Moses, God brought those dreadful plagues, and at his prayer removed them again. When Samson was ready to perish with thirst, he prayed to God, and he brought water out of a dry jawbone, for his supply, Judges 15:18, 19. And when he prayed, after his strength was departed from him, God strengthened him, so as to pull down the temple of Dagon on the Philistines: so that those whom he slew at his death were more than all those whom he slew in his life. —Joshua prayed to God, and said, “Sun, stand thou still upon Gibeon, and thou, Moon, in the valley of Ajalon;” [Joshua 10:12] and God heard his prayer, and caused the sun and moon to stand still accordingly. The prophet “Elijah was a man of like passion” with us; James 5:17-18, “and he prayed earnestly that it might not rain; and it rained not on the earth by the space of three years and six months. And he prayed again, and the heaven gave rain, and the earth brought forth her fruit;” as the apostle James observes, So God confounded the army of Zerah, the Ethiopian, of a thousand thousand, in answer to the prayer of Asa, 2 Chronicles 14:9, etc. And God sent an angel, and slew in one night an hundred and eighty-five thousand men of Sennacherib’s army, in answer to Hezekiah’s prayer, 2 Kings 19:14-16, 19, 35.”


Aristotle and a Motionless Earth

Cellarius ptolemaic system c2“That the earth is the centre of the universe, and is at rest, is furthermore proved by Aristotle from theological considerations: thus, everything that performs any act has been made for the purpose of that act.  Now, the work of God is immortality, from which it follows that all that is divine must have an eternal motion.  The heavens have a divine quality, and for this reason they have a spherical shape and move eternally in a circle.  Now, when a body has a circular motion, one part of it must remain at rest in the centre; the earth is in the centre, and therefore motionless.”

~ “How the Earth was Regarded in Old Times” – From the French of Flammarion, Popular Science Monthly Volume 10

Ancient Earth Views

From “How the Earth was Regarded in Old Times” – From the French of Flammarion, Popular Science Monthly Volume 10:

The earth floating:

PSM V10 D561 The earth floatingThe earth with roots:
PSM V10 D561 The earth with rootsThe Earth of the Veda priests:

PSM V10 D562 The earth of the veda priestsThe Hindu Earth:

PSM V10 D562 The hindoo earthAnaximander cylindrical earth:

PSM V10 D563 Anaximander cylindrical earthPlato cubical earth:

PSM V10 D563 Plato cubical earthEgyptian representation of heaven and earth:

PSM V10 D564 Egyptian representation of heaven and earthThe Earth of the later Greeks:

PSM V10 D565 The earth of the later greeksThe cosmography of Cosmas:

PSM V10 D566 The cosmography of cosmasThe Earth and Firmament (Cosmas also):

PSM V10 D567 The earth and firmamentThe Earth as an egg:

PSM V10 D568 The earth as an eggThe earth as a floating egg (Venerable Bede):

PSM V10 D569 The earth as a floating eggEight century map of the world:

PSM V10 D570 Eight century map of the world